Saturday, August 22, 2020

Oracle Free Essays

How is the IKEA activities structure unique in relation to that of most furniture retail tasks? IKEA is known as one of the world’s biggest furniture retailer that centers exceptionally around cost control, operational procedure and item improvement. IKEA separates itself from most furniture retailers by offering a wide scope of all around structured exhibit of home furniture at alluring costs that stay moderate to an enormous gathering of different clients. There are some remarkable highlights of IKEA when contrasted with most furniture retail locations (IKEA, 2012) Self †Service’ (insignificant help or impact from sales rep) Details of all items are made pervasive in the showroom consequently making deals help superfluous which this consequently assists with decreasing the employing cost of work. We will compose a custom exposition test on Prophet or then again any comparable subject just for you Request Now Format of Products (item introduction) Ikea stores are structured in a single direction ‘walk-through layout’ that expects clients to be presented to the whole items which is not at all like from most furniture retail locations where by clients may decide to go straightforwardly to the area they liked. Subsequently, the stream permits expanded productivity from entering the showroom, choosing of items to finally making installments. Furniture Most of Ikea items are self †collected items, this assists with decreasing the expenses of delivery as higher volume of mass bundling should be possible. Not at all like most furniture retail locations where free conveyance and gathering is given, extra charges apply if fixing of item is required by the clients. In conclusion, four components of activities (Volume, Variety, Variation and Visibility) will be utilized to decide the contrasts between IKEA tasks to that of most furniture retail locations. High Volume †IKEA’s activities are of huge scope, significant land space and gigantic vehicle leaves are created to take into account all clients, everything about the plan of IKEA’s tasks energizes high volume of throughput when contrasted with most furniture retail locations (IKEA, 2012). High Variety of item however Low Variety of administration †The assortment of items exhibit in IKEA is significantly more than most furniture retail locations, from little things, for example, kitchen machines to enormous things, for example, tables. Be that as it may, most definitely it is generally tight. Most items are self †gathered and there is no sales rep to offer any support to the clients, forgetting about themselves to figure and settle on their own choice for the buy. High Variation on request †Public occasions and ends of the week for the most part pulls in progressively swarmed when contrasted with typical week days, henceforth bring about high variety. Notwithstanding, there won't be any trouble of getting low maintenance staff into IKEA during the pinnacle time frame as the tasks in IKEA are very much planned. Not at all like most retail location which require staff with explicit ability that expects time to recruit. Low Visibility †Customer contact is high in certain broaden, however by and large it is lower than most furniture retail locations considering the greater part of the things are done (‘self-service’) exclusively by the clients from the beginning till it arrives at the purpose of installment where it is likewise a normalized procedure by IKEA. This at last lessens the expenses of the exchange most definitely. What might be the serious issues in running an activity like IKEA? Having such enormous assortment and high volume of item being executed, it might be extreme for them to deal with the stock for all things. Delivery of high volume mass things may require some serious energy and IKEA may confront stock-out period, subsequently their tasks arranging must be done and determined precisely. As all deals are done on ‘self-serviced’ way, it may not make an extraordinary shopping experience when contrasted with most retail locations where sales rep can provide food a progressively explicit and novel direct understanding to all clients to make devotion. In conclusion, IKEA being the biggest furniture retailer require a great deal of regular material, for example, wood, which may hurt the worldwide condition (IKEA, 2012). Reference IKEA (2012) Our Vision and Business Idea. Accessible at: http://www. ikea. com/ms/en_SG/about_ikea/the_ikea_way/our_business_idea/record. html (Accessed 29 January 2013) Step by step instructions to refer to Oracle, Essay models

Friday, August 21, 2020

Finance and Growth Strategies Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Money and Growth Strategies - Assignment Example The paper tells that profits are returns which are paid to the investors from the firm’s income for their interest in the organization whether or not the profit are created in past period or the present time frame. Profits will impact the capital structure of the firm since held income increment the estimation of the regular stock than obligation capital. A firm can't accept the profit strategy to be immaterial. In deciding the sum to be delivered as profits, the firm ought to investigate the impact of the profit strategy on the activities of the. Be that as it may, some monetary examiners are of the conclusion that profit approach is superfluous since it doesn't change the estimation of the firm. Financial specialists can alter the venture portfolios when if their inclination is a consistent wellspring of pay henceforth they can put resources into bonds where the premium installments are sure as opposed to putting resources into regular stocks where the profit installments va cillate. Another contention of the rivals of profit installment is that tax assessment from profits is higher thus capital increases are progressively best by speculators. They recommend that the firm ought to reinvest the profit which will eventually expand the estimation of the firm consequently expanding the offer worth. The firm ought to use its income in attempted greater venture ventures, repurchasing the regular stock and securing progressively beneficial organizations subsequently expanding the market estimation of the basic stock... The firm is additionally expected to settle on a choice on the planning of the installment of the profits whereby interval and last profits can be paid from the income of the firm (Khan 2004). The top managerial staff should settle on a choice on the sum to deliver where a steady profit deliver out proportion or fluctuating profit pay out proportion might be actualized by the firm. The firm may likewise receive a remaining strategy on the installment of profits. The profit approach needs to consider a few functional contemplations which incorporate the accompanying (Khan 2004). Long haul financing choice The profit strategy can be named as a financing choice when held income are considered as modest wellspring of account. The profit strategy ought to consider the speculation openings which are accessible (Khan 2004). On the off chance that the firm ahs suitable venture openings which exist, the profit approach which is received ought to be leftover profit choice where profits are pai d simply after enough assets have been designated to the reasonable speculation openings (Khan 2004). Held profit are a less expensive wellspring of assets since they don't include the floatation costs. Installment of money profits would lessen the assets accessible for the drawn out financing choices when the firm might not have different wellsprings of fund (Harold 2009). For this situation, the firm may choose to deliver extra offers as profits to the investors and put the held income in other beneficial open doors since the offer estimation of the stocks increment with the expansion in the estimation of the firm (Harold 2009). Money related necessities of the firm Retained profit of the firm are less expensive wellspring of fund for reinvestment purposes. On the off chance that the inward pace of return of the firm

Saturday, June 6, 2020

History Research Personality and Stalin‘s Rise to Power - 3025 Words

History Research: Personality and Stalin‘s Rise to Power (Research Paper Sample) Content: Students NameProfessorSubjectDatePersonality and Stalins Rise to Power Introduction The events of the 1920s and 1930s continue to attract the curiosity of contemporary historians and scholars interested in understanding the dynamics that came into play to catapult Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) into the echelons of power. Although Stalin continues to be viewed by many as a divisive and ruthless figure based on the purges, gulags and famines that left millions of Russian citizens dead, it is clear that several historians have focused on understanding the statesmans swift rise to power, particularly in terms of how he managed to outwit the hugely more talented and deserving Leon Trotsky to become Lenins political successor (Khlevniuk 108; Pereira 16-17). In 1922, when Vladimir Lenin suffered the first of a succession of strokes that led to his incapacitation, few Russians would have predicted that Stalin would rise to power and become the sole leader of the Communist Part du e to his lack of charisma or the oratorical brilliance associated with Trotsky. Consequently, other leading political figures in the Party concentrated their efforts on preventing Trotsky from gaining control over the party and never considered Stalin as a worthy challenger, preferring to refer to him as the grey blur (Dukes 15; Smith 326). However, by 1929, Stalin had emerged as the exclusive leader of the Communist Party, signaling his rise to power in a contest that was dominated by political heavyweights such as Trotsky, Kamenev, and Zinoviev (Black 71; Plamper 41). The present paper argues that Stalins personality and the cult of personality concept were instrumental factors in his rise to power as they acted to legitimize his authority among the Russian masses, tame political opponents within Russia, and develop a working relationship with global leaders. Understanding the Cult of Personality Many scholars of Russian history discuss Stalin using the cult of personality phras e, which was established by Nikita Khrushchev to denounce Stalin and Stalinism during the Twentieth Communist Party Congress held in 1956. One particular scholar argues that the cult of personality is an old, elusive expression that was used by Khrushchev as a criticism of the system of arbitrary one-man rule established by Stalin, rather than of any personality that engendered and maintained that system (Wingrove 18). Another scholar cites Khrushchev denouncing Stalins cult of personality as a psychosis that had little association with the main tenets of the Soviet ideology and was only aimed at supporting the glorification of Stalins own person using all available methods (Khlevniuk 111). Still, another scholar argues that the cult was designed to serve as a mechanism for political mobilization by advancing a larger-than-life hero capable of embodying the power, legitimacy and appeal of the Soviet experiment (Brandenberger 250). However, although Khrushchev never dug too deeply in to the personality of Stalin as he was only interested in portraying Stalins one-man rule as anti-Leninist, it is clear from the historical evidence adduced so far that Stalin was endowed with unique personality traits that influenced his rise to power. Here, it is important to differentiate the cult of personality entrenched by Khrushchev to discount Stalin and the personality traits that defined the leader and fueled his rise to power. Consequently, the next section attempts to demonstrate how Stalins known personality traits (e.g., special qualities, mediation skills, and capacity to gauge the mood of ordinary Party members) were of particular importance in his ascent to power. Afterwards, the paper will focus on establishing how the cult of personality played a leading role in catapulting Stalins rise to power. Stalins Personality and the Rise to PowerHistorical accounts underscore the fact that Stalin had special qualities that prompted Lenin to have him appointe d to the Central Committee as early as 1913 (Pereira 17). This author argues that Stalins personality attributes, including shrewd judgment, a fine memory, common sense and an uncanny sense of timing, made Lenin to develop confidence in Stalin that he could be relied more for the most difficult party tasks irrespective of the fact that he was little known prior to his ascension to the Central Committee. The author further notes that Stalins poor education and ungrammatical Russian worked to his advantage because they made him appear to be more a man of the people, especially in comparison with the silver tongued Jews, Trotsky, and Zinoviev (Pereira 17). As such, it can be argued that Stalins personal attributes were instrumental in endearing him to Lenin and the common Russian people, hence his rise to power. These special personality attributes enabled Stalin to play off different factions within the Party leadership against each other, with the most common example being how Stali n formed a three-man leadership team with Kamenev and Zinoviev to force Trotskys resignation as Commissioner for War in 1925 (Black 72; Pyzhikov 12-13). Consequently, it can be argued that Stalins special personality qualities played a significant role in helping him to become a skilful political operator who endeared himself to those who mattered in the Russian political landscape while fighting off political opponents. Stalins personality goes beyond special qualities to a predisposition to act to be the mediator among conflicting political heavyweights, particularly when clashing aspirations in the leadership endangered party unity. To reinforce this argument, it could be recalled that Stalin offered to step down from the partys leadership in the twelfth Party Congress in 1923 and the fifteenth Party Congress in 1927 (Pereira 17). This gesture, though perceived as predatory and tactical in some quarters, was effective in endearing Stalin to the Russian population by neutralizi ng the self-promotion values that characterized established political players such as Zinoviev and Kamenev. As various members of the Politburo took conflicting political positions depending on the posts they held in the Party, Stalin took upon himself to act as the supreme arbitrator in inter-institutional conflicts as well as the lead initiator of important decisions affecting the Party and the Russian population (Khlevniuk 113). Stalins effective mediation skills and his central role in defending the interests of the state were instrumental in his rise to the epitome of Russian politics, giving credence to the assertion that his personality played a decisive role in legitimizing his authority as an astute political operative destined to protect the interests of the Russian population. As a matter of fact, some historians have suggested Stalins seemingly effective mediation skills were a demonstration of his shrewdness or astuteness in playing with other leaders of the Party to en sure political survival (Dukes 16; Varga-Harris 3-5). Other historical accounts have attempted to analyze particular personality traits that differentiated Stalin and fueled his rise to power. Here, one particular scholar argues that Stalin relied on what he perceived to be his gift of foresight and his own infallibility (Khlevniuk 115). These personal attributes, which were perceived in almost mystical terms, were instrumental in not only fueling obstinacy and resistance to compromise that characterized Stalins firm grip on power in the late 1930s, but also in entrenching the leaders pragmatic approaches to domestic and foreign policy. For example, it is evident that Stalins foresight and pragmatism in foreign policy enabled him to prevent the deepening of crises, as happened when he supported the North Koreans in a war against the south. Another scholar argues that Stalin had extra-ordinary personal self-control and was steadfast and purposeful in guiding the masses on the laborio us path to Communism (Wingrove 18). It is also clear that Stalin was much better that his political opponents at gauging the mood of the regular Party members and resisting the arrogance demonstrated by other political figures, hence achieving effectiveness in drawing support from the masses. Here, it can be argued that Stalin scored political marks by gauging the mood of ordinary Party members on issues such as exporting the revolution abroad and launching more socialist economic policies aimed at transforming the USSR into a modern industrial state (Varga-Harris 4). Stalins predisposition to gauge the mood of common Russians made him hugely popular because he was viewed as a person who not only readily identified with the issues affecting common Party members, but also appeared keen to offer solutions that resonated well with the masses. While many Russian political figures such as Trotsky thrived on arrogance and defiance, Stalin found a way to appeal to common Party mem bers who formed the bedrock of Socialist politics by gauging their mood and acting accordingly (Tucker 348-350). Although some scholars have argued that Stalin had several weaknesses (e.g., Georgian accent, lack of a strong voice due to health challenges, and short stature), he nevertheless perfected the techniques of self-promotion based on his attributes (e.g., astuteness, thoroughness, cynicism, complete absence of human attachment, immense charm, persuasiveness, and acute insights into the weaknesses of others) that served to endear him to the masses, legitimize his authority, and tame political opponents (Black 70; Strong and K...

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Intercultural Communication Through Photo Shopped Images

8 Research Essay Research Essay: Intercultural Communication Through Photo-shopped Images Shelbie Burris Intercultural Communication ? PCM 330 Professor Hayes June 9, 2016 Research Essay: Intercultural Communication Through Photo-shopped Images Fashion magazines, general women?s magazine and advertisements for beauty products use Photoshop regularly and emphatically to make woman look thin, blemish free, and generally aligned with the familiar American standard of female beauty. By featuring digitally altered woman on their covers and within throughout their pages, these media outlets are promoting this unattainable standard of beauty to woman all over the country on mass. By using Photoshop to erase any fat that might exist on a woman?s arms or thighs and any wrinkle under a woman?s eyes, they create a landscape in which woman rarely see images of other woman who look like them or anyone they know in the media. This use of digital manipulation creates a lack of real images of real women associated with beauty. According the video lecture What Is Culture, a major role of popular culture is to ?give you identity what it needs when it needs it? and the fashion media is failing is failing to do this for American women (J., 20 09). Of course, popular culture is a major method of intercultural communication and our relationship with it is very complicated. Many people respond very differently to all forms of popular culture in varying situations and contexts.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Marketing Definition - 1002 Words

Marketing definition Every company depends on an efficient marketing program to fulfill customers needs. Marketing is a process of finding out what the customer wants and meeting those requirements. Within the company, the marketing group has to consider customer values and customer satisfaction before considering offering a product. Marketing is part of our everyday world, and can be perceived everywhere and every time. At any time, everyone has been exposed to different kinds of marketing or advertising depending upon personal necessities such as T.V commercials, radio, internet, etc. Another definition of marketing is the selling of products or services: the business activity of presenting products or services in such a way as to†¦show more content†¦Mc Donald s use bags and cups to promote or advertise their new price values and contests and promotions. At the same time, this sponsors a good quality of the product influencing customer necessities. Another illustration of marketing strategies is that of high profit corporations such as Pepsi, Budweiser, Microsoft, and others, which use TV advertising to promote products and services expending millions of dollars. Some of these companies use air time during programs such as the Super Bowl in which companies have paid over 20 million dollars to promote their products in just a 30 second commercial within a 4 hour event timeframe. A company will expend exorbitant amounts of capital for advertising because they believe in the brand and quality behind the product acquired for years in the market. In conclusion, a good marketing plan can help companies focus their energy and resources. However, a plan created in emptiness, based exclusively on company perceptions, does not advance the agenda. That is why market research, however simple or complicated, is important. Just keep in mind that research attempts to predict the future by studying the past. It reveals what people have done, and present a better perspective of what people might do or might not do. After performing research,Show MoreRelatedDefinition Of Definitions Of Marketing1471 Words   |  6 Pagesny definitions of marketing. Marketing can be summarised as a process by which a product or service is presented and promoted to potential customers. Customer value also has many definitions. The simplest form of customer value is defined as being what customers get from buying the product and the functional use of the product versus what they pay, resulting in an attitude toward, or an emotional connection with the product. 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The main purpose of the marketing is to increase the sales of the products and getting more profit for the company. 4P’s of marketing: ProductRead MoreDefinition Of Marketing : Marketing Essay4186 Words   |  17 PagesDefinition of marketing: Marketing is something which every organization does to place their product or service in the hands of potential customers. It includes diverse disciplines, public relations, pricing, packaging and distribution. 4 p’s of marketing: Products: The products play a vital role in marketing. They analyze the wants of the customers and offering them a product. They are also set the size of the product color of the product and other things. They are also considering about theRead MoreMarketing : Definition Of Marketing Essay2139 Words   |  9 Pages Name Gursimran deep Singh Student ID- ND15164 Define marketing Marketing is the activity, set of organisations, and processes for producing, communicating, delivering, and exchanging contributions that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. And this is management process through which goods and services move from concept to the customers. The 4Ps are: Price: Its mentions to the value that is put for a productRead MoreMarketing Definition and Importance1431 Words   |  6 PagesMarketing Definition and Importance Marketing Definition and Importance The world of marketing is very diverse and can be defined and applied in many different ways. One person might be asked to give a definition of marketing and give a totally different definition than another person. Marketing importance to an organization can be different from one to the other depending on product line and ways in which the organization markets the product. In today’s paper one will look at two different definitionsRead MoreMarketing Definition Essay962 Words   |  4 PagesMarketing definition Every company depends on an efficient marketing program to fulfill customers needs. Marketing is a process of finding out what the customer wants and meeting those requirements. Within the company, the marketing group has to consider customer values and customer satisfaction before considering offering a product. Marketing is part of our everyday world, and can be perceived everywhere and every time. At any time, everyone has been exposed to different kinds of marketing or

Organisational Behaviour Social Media Integrated Technologies

Question: Discuss about the Organisational Behaviour for Social Media Integrated Technologies. Answer: Introduction To Social Media Social media is an integrated technology which helps the users to generate their own contents and share through different connections. It is associated with Web 2.0 technology that is used for integration, collaborating and interacting. Examples of social media tools include social networking sites like Facebook, Myspace, Bebo, etc. Next come microblogging like Twitter. Content communities like YouTube, Pinterest. Blogs include WordPress and other blogging sites. Podcasts consist of iTunes, etc. Wikis, forums, email are also included in social media. Social media has many characteristics includes immediacy, interaction, audience and scalability. It helps to interact and engage with the community and the agency to improve communication and relationship. People from different professions have embraced social media. Enterprises of different sizes are achieving tremendous benefits by using these tools to reach out to customers and various communities in a short span of time (Van Dijck 20 13). Advantages Connectivity- Connection is the first and foremost advantage of using social media. People from around the globe can share their ideas by a few clicks with the help of social media. Education- It is a boon for the students and the teachers to interact with different experts and professionals around the globe in different time zones to get updated in ones own field or learn a new language without spending a single penny (Tess 2013). Information and Updates We can receive latest happenings around the world with a few research and get the true information. Helps Government and Agencies Fight Crimes- It helps the organizations to fight with the criminals and get access to valuable information. Promotional Tool- We can promote our business to a large audience through digital marketing and advertising and can connect with the right audience (Laroche et al. 2012). Disadvantages Cyberbullying- states that many children have become victims of cyberbullying through threats, unwanted messages and rumors that creates a chaotic situation in the society (Grzig and Frumkin 2013). Hacking- Privacy is a big issue as everything is shared in the internet. Identity theft is a big problem which led to monetary losses which were hacked by the hackers. Personal social networking accounts are also hacked which have affected the personal lives of many people. Health- Excessive usage of social media leads to deterioration of health and brings chaos in ones life. Relationship- People use social media platform to propose and marry. Couples cheat others by showing fake feelings and wrong information (Korda and Itani 2013). Reputation- Social media can easily destroy ones good image by creating a false story and also various businesses suffer the same. Current Trends Virtual reality will combine with social media- We will not only share moments with our friends but also the entire experiences and adventures quoted by Mark Zuckerberg and it is happening. He acquired Oculus and embedded their technology into its 360 Video. The videos allow a user to have unique experiences to look from different angles on both web and mobile devices (Lytras et al. 2015). Social Shopping- Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest and Instagram have upgraded their sites with in-line buy buttons which allow users to shop in their feeds only without opening any other sites. The posts from friends help them to make a right decision while shopping. Pinterests Buyable Pins let users to browse colors and styles and pay without leaving the platform. Facebook Live- It is a feature that allows sharing live video using the Facebook platform. The users need not have to install any app or leave the platform to use the video feature (Fattal 2012). Widening of social media skills- The launching of social networks at the workplace like Slack and Facebook at Work has become a daily requirement at the office. Businesses are using social tools for communicating internally to help the sales personnel to reach customers and also used for advertising and marketing. Training is required to use social media in the right way at the workplace. Conclusion Social media has a huge impact in personal and professional lives of the people. It is creating a rage all over the globe helping the enterprises to interact and do business with various stakeholders in a short span of time. It is used as an interactive tool for advertising and marketing. Using social media has both benefits and drawbacks. In this rapidly changing 21st century one needs to have a balance to put their information into the social media which will ultimately emerge them victorious. References Fattal, A., 2012. Facebook: Corporate Hackers, a Billion Users, and the Geo-politics of the" Social Graph". Anthropological Quarterly, 85(3), pp.927-955. Grzig, A. and Frumkin, L., 2013. Cyberbullying experiences on-the-go: When social media can become distressing. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 7(1). Korda, H. and Itani, Z., 2013. Harnessing social media for health promotion and behavior change. Health promotion practice, 14(1), pp.15-23. Laroche, M., Habibi, M.R., Richard, M.O. and Sankaranarayanan, R., 2012. The effects of social media based brand communities on brand community markers, value creation practices, brand trust and brand loyalty. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(5), pp.1755-1767. Lytras, M.D., Al-Halabi, W., Zhang, J.X., Haraty, R.A. and Masud, M., 2015. Enabling Technologies and Business Infrastructures for Next Generation Social Media: Big Data, Cloud Computing, Internet of Things and Virtual Reality. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 21(11), pp.1379-1384. Tess, P.A., 2013. The role of social media in higher education classes (real and virtual)A literature review. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(5), pp.A60-A68. Van Dijck, J., 2013. The culture of connectivity: A critical history of social media. Oxford University Press.

Monday, April 20, 2020

Respiratory Diseases free essay sample

Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing. Respiratory diseases range from mild and self-limiting, such as the common cold, to life-threatening entities like bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, and lung cancer.The study of respiratory disease is known as pulmonology. A doctor who specializes in respiratory disease is known as a pulmonologist, a chest medicine specialist, a respiratory medicine specialist, a respirologist or a thoracic medicine specialist. Respiratory diseases can be classified in many different ways, including by the organ or tissue involved, by the type and pattern of associated signs and symptoms, or by the cause (etiology) of the disease. Inflammatory lung disease Characterised by a high neutrophil count, e. . asthma, cystic fibrosis, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder or acute respiratory distress syndrome. We will write a custom essay sample on Respiratory Diseases or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page [1] Allergic reactions due to exposure to certain agents (i. e. foods) are a relatively common cause of acute respiratory disease. Obstructive lung diseases Obstructive lung diseases are diseases of the lung where the airways (i. e. bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli) become reduced in volume or have free flow of gas impeded, making it more difficult to move air in and out of the lung.Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), which includes asthma an example of an obstructive lung disease, is where the airways become damaged, causing them to narrow. Restrictive lung diseases Restrictive lung diseases (also known as interstitial lung diseases) are a category of respiratory disease characterized by a loss of lung compliance,[2] causing incomplete lung expansion and increased lung stiffness. E. g. in infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS). Respiratory tract infections Infections can affect any part of the respiratory system.They are traditionally divided into upper respiratory tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections. Upper respiratory tract infection common cold however, sinusitis, tonsillitis,pharyngitis and laryngitis are Lower respiratory tract infection pneumonia, tuberculosis Diagnosis Respiratory diseases may be investigated by performing one or more of the following tests Chest x-ray Pulmonary function test Computed tomography scan Culture of microorganisms from secretions such as sputum Bronchoscopy Biopsy of the lung or pleuraVentilation perfusion scan Ultrasound scanning Epidemiology Respiratory di sease is a common and important cause of illness and death around the world. In the US, approximately 1 billion common colds occur each year. [5] In the UK, approximately 1 in 7 individuals are affected by some form of chronic lung disease, most commonly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which includes asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. [6] Respiratory diseases (including lung cancer) are responsible for over 10% of hospitalizations and over 16% of deaths in Canada